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Towards A Rational Understanding Of Shear In Beams And Slabs

Autor: fib Fédération internationale du béton
Publisher: FIB - Féd. Int. du Béton
ISBN: 2883941254
File Size: 5,33 MB
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Reliable performance of beams and slabs in shear is essential for the safety and also for the serviceability of reinforced concrete structures. A possible failure in shear is usually a brittle failure, which underlines the importance of the correct specification of the load carrying capacity in shear. The knowledge of performance in shear is steadily developing and it is now obvious that older structures were not always designed in accordance with contemporary requirements. The increasing load – mainly on bridges – requires the assessment of existing structures, often followed by their strengthening. An appropriate understanding of actual performance of concrete structures in shear is therefore of primary interest. The workshop which was held in Zürich in 2016 brought together a significant number of outstanding specialists working in the field of shear design, who had a chance to exchange their opinions and proposals for improving the current knowledge of shear behaviour in beams and slabs. The specialists came from different parts of the world, which made the workshop general and representative. The workshop was organised by fib Working Party 2.2.1 “Shear in Beams” (convened by O. Bayrak), which is a part of fib Commission 2 "Analysis and Design". Individual contributions mainly address shear in beams with low transversal reinforcement. It is crucial because many existing structures lack such reinforcement. Different theories, e.g. Critical Shear Crack Theory (CSCT), Modified Compression Field Theory (MCFT), Multi-Action Shear Model (MASM), etc. were presented and compared with procedures used in selected national codes or in the fib Model Code 2010. The models for shear design were often based to a great extent on empirical experience. The refined presented models tend to take into account the physical mechanisms in structures more effectively. A brittle behaviour in shear requires not only to check the equilibrium and failure load, but also to follow the progress of failure, including the crack development and propagation, stress redistribution, etc. The significance of the size effect – which causes the nominal strength of a large structure to be smaller than that of a small structure – was pointed out. Nowadays, the fibre reinforcement is used more than before since it allows significant labour costs savings in the construction industry. The contribution of fibres is suitable for shear transfer. It is very convenient that not only ordinary fibre reinforced elements were addressed but also the UHPFRC beams. The production of this new material is indeed growing, while the development of design recommendations has not been sufficiently fast. Fatigue resistance of structures with low shear reinforcement is also an important issue, which was also addressed in this bulletin. It cannot be neglected in prestressed bridges, which are exposed to dynamic loads. A comprehensive understanding of the shear behaviour is necessary. Although many laboratory experiments are carried out, they are suitable only to a limited extent. New testing methods are being developed and show promising results, e.g. digital image correlation. An actual structure performance should rather be tested on a large scale, ideally on real structures under realistic loading conditions.ii The papers presented in the bulletin are a basis for the discussion in view of the development of updated design rules for the new fib Model Code (MC2020), which is currently under preparation. fib Bulletins like this one, dealing with shear, help to transfer knowledge from research to design practice. The authors are convinced that it will lead to better new structures design of as well as to savings and to a safety increase in older existing structures, whose future is often decided now.

Reclamation Manual Design And Construction Pt 2 Engineering Design Design Supplement No 2 Treatise On Dams Design Supplement No 3 Canals And Related Structures Design Supplement No 4 Power Systems Design Supplement No 5 Field Installation Procedures Design Supplement No 7 Valves Gates And Steel Conduits Design Supplement No 8 Miscellaneous Mechanical Equipment And Facilities Design Supplement No 9 Buildings Design Supplement No 10 Transmission Structures Design Supplement No 11 Railroads Highways And Camp Facilities

Autor: United States. Bureau of Reclamation
File Size: 13,61 MB
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Freedom After The Critique Of Foundations

Autor: A. Kioupkiolis
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 1137029625
File Size: 23,95 MB
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An exploration of the contemporary re-conception of freedom after the critique of objective truths and ideas of an unchanging human nature, in which modern self-determination was grounded. This book focuses on the radical theorist Cornelius Castoriadis and the new paradigm of 'agonistic autonomy' is contrasted with Marxian and liberal approaches.

Engineering Behaviour Of Rocks

Autor: Ian W. Farmer
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 940095753X
File Size: 17,36 MB
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The first edition of this book was received more kindly than it deserved by some, and with some scepticism by others. It set out to present a simple, concise and reasonably comprehensive introduction to some of the theoretical and empirical criteria which may be used to define rock as a structural material. The objectives - reinforced by the change in title - remain the same, but the approach has been changed considerably and only one or two sections have been retained from the first edition. The particular aim in this edition is to provide a description of the mechanical behaviour of rocks, based firmly upon experimental data, which can be used to explain how rocks deform, fracture and yield, and to show how this knowledge can be used in design. The major emphasis is on the behaviour of rocks as materials, although in the later chapters the behaviour of discontinuities in rocks, and the way in which this can affect the behaviour of rock masses, is considered. If this edition is an improvement on the first edition it reflects the debt lowe to numerous people who have attempted to explain the rudiments of the subject to me. I should like to thank Peter Attewell and Roy Scott in particular. I should also like to thank Tony Price and Mike Gilbert whose work at Newcastle I have used shamelessly.

Cracks In My Foundation

Autor: Marian Keyes
Publisher: Harper Collins
ISBN: 0061864692
File Size: 15,10 MB
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Go further under the covers and stay in bed a little longer with Marian Keyes in this winning follow-up to her smash essay collection, Under the Duvet. Written in the witty, forthright style that has earned her legions of devoted readers, Cracks in My Foundation offers an even deeper and more candid look into this beloved author's mind and heart, exploring such universal themes as friends and family, home, glamour and beauty, children, travel, and more. Marian's hilarious and thoughtful take on life makes her readers feel they are reading a friend, not just an author. Marian continues to entertain with her reports from the trenches, and throws in some original short fiction as well. Whether it's visiting Siberia, breaking it off with an old hairdresser, shopping (of course!), turning forty, living with her beloved husband, Himself (a man beyond description), or musing on the F word (feminism), Marian shares the joys, passions, and sorrows of her world and helps us feel good about our own. So grab a latte and a pillow and get ready to laugh your slippers off!

Unsaturated Soil Mechanics In Engineering Practice

Autor: Delwyn G. Fredlund
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118280504
File Size: 21,42 MB
Format: PDF
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The definitive guide to unsaturated soil— from the world's experts on the subject This book builds upon and substantially updates Fredlund and Rahardjo's publication, Soil Mechanics for Unsaturated Soils, the current standard in the field of unsaturated soils. It provides readers with more thorough coverage of the state of the art of unsaturated soil behavior and better reflects the manner in which practical unsaturated soil engineering problems are solved. Retaining the fundamental physics of unsaturated soil behavior presented in the earlier book, this new publication places greater emphasis on the importance of the "soil-water characteristic curve" in solving practical engineering problems, as well as the quantification of thermal and moisture boundary conditions based on the use of weather data. Topics covered include: Theory to Practice of Unsaturated Soil Mechanics Nature and Phase Properties of Unsaturated Soil State Variables for Unsaturated Soils Measurement and Estimation of State Variables Soil-Water Characteristic Curves for Unsaturated Soils Ground Surface Moisture Flux Boundary Conditions Theory of Water Flow through Unsaturated Soils Solving Saturated/Unsaturated Water Flow Problems Air Flow through Unsaturated Soils Heat Flow Analysis for Unsaturated Soils Shear Strength of Unsaturated Soils Shear Strength Applications in Plastic and Limit Equilibrium Stress-Deformation Analysis for Unsaturated Soils Solving Stress-Deformation Problems with Unsaturated Soils Compressibility and Pore Pressure Parameters Consolidation and Swelling Processes in Unsaturated Soils Unsaturated Soil Mechanics in Engineering Practice is essential reading for geotechnical engineers, civil engineers, and undergraduate- and graduate-level civil engineering students with a focus on soil mechanics.