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Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: Kurt Bucher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662030004
File Size: 30,89 MB
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Metamorphic rocks are one of the three classes of rocks. Seen on a global scale they constitute the dominant material of the Earth. The understanding of the petrogenesis and significance of metamorphic of geological education. rocks is, therefore, a fundamental topic There are, of course, many different possible ways to lecture on this theme. This book addresses rock metamorphism from a relatively pragmatic view point. It has been written for the senior undergrad uate or graduate student who needs practical knowledge of how to interpret various groups of minerals found in metamorphic rocks. The book is also of interest for the non-specialist and non-petrolo gist professional who is interested in learning more about the geolo gical messages that metamorphic mineral assemblages are sending, as well as pressure and temperature conditions of formation. The book is organized into two parts. The first part introduces the different types of metamorphism, defines some names, terms and graphs used to describe metamorphic rocks, and discusses principal aspects of metamorphic processes. Part I introduces the causes of metamorphism on various scales in time and space, and some principles of chemical reactions in rocks that accompany metamorphism, but without treating these principles in detail, and presenting the thermodynamic basis for quantitative analysis of reactions and their equilibria in metamorphism. Part I also presents concepts of metamorphic grade or intensity of metamorphism, such as the metamorphic-facies concept.

Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: Helmut G.F. Winkler
Publisher: Springer
ISBN: 3642532764
File Size: 29,25 MB
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The last fifteen years have witnessed an amazing development of petrology. During this time it became readily feasible to investigate reactions at high temperatures and pressures. The new experimental techniques were immediately applied in the fields of mineralogy and petrology and, at present, research activity continues unabated. The aim of these in vestigations is the elucidation of the origin of magmatic and, particularly, of metamorphic rocks. Only a few years ago, the second editions of the well-known textbooks by TURNER and VERHOOGEN (1960) and by BARTH (1962) were published. But even since that time, our knowledge of metamorphic petrology has been augmented by numerous experimental investigations and by new petrographic observa tions as well. Such rapid growth warrents an evaluation of the accumulated knowledge bearing on the origin of meta morphic rocks. With this thought in mind, the present book was written. The treatment purposely stresses the mineral ogical-chemical aspects of metamorphism. The discussion is mainly concerned with the reactions, which transform the mineralogical composition of a rock, when subjected to meta morphic conditions within the earth's crust. "The question of the general relationship between the minerals and the mineral associations, on the one hand, and temperature and pressure, on the other, is the real core of the study of metamorphic rocks" (BARTH, 1962). Petrofabric analysis of metamorphic rocks is not discussed, because this is a special field of study.

Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: K. Bucher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662049147
File Size: 12,77 MB
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Metamorphic rocks make up the largest volume of the Earth. They systematically change their mineralogical composition as a result of tecto-thermal events. The outstanding feature of the 7th edition of this book is the large number of phase diagrams showing the stability relations among minerals and groups of minerals found in metamorphic rocks. The diagrams help to determine the pressure and temperature conditions under which a given collected set of metamorphic rocks may have formed. More than half of the chapters have been completely rewritten or revised. All figures have been edited and improved and recent advances in the field such as multiequilibria thermobarometry and pseudosections were incorporated in the text. The bibliography has been revised and extended, new research publications have also been included. Graduate students will find in depth information on the origin, significance and genesis of metamorphic rocks.

Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: Kurt Bucher
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3540741682
File Size: 13,37 MB
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Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks presents a large number of diagrams showing the stability relations among minerals and groups of minerals found in metamorphic rocks. The diagrams help to determine the pressure and temperature conditions under which a given set of metamorphic rocks may have formed. Other parameters that control metamorphic mineral assemblages are also discussed and pitfalls resulting from simplifications and generalizations are highlighted. The book discusses the most common metamorphic rock types, their nomenclature, structure and graphical representation of their mineral assemblages. Part I defines basic principles of metamorphism, introduces metamorphic processes, geologic thermometry and barometry and defines metamorphic grade. Part II presents in a systematic way mineralogical changes and assemblages found in the most common types of metamorphic rocks. The computation of diagrams is based on recent advances in quantitative petrology and geochemistry. An extensive bibliography, including the key contributions and classic papers in the field, make it an invaluable source book for graduate students and professional geologists.

Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: H.G.F. Winkler
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3662222833
File Size: 25,50 MB
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The first edition of this book was published in 1965 and its French translation in 1966. The revised second edition followed in 1967 and its Russian translation became available in 1969. Since then, many new petrographic observations and experimental data elucidat ing reactions in metamorphic rocks have made a new approach in the study of metamorphic transformation desirable and possible. It is felt that this new approach, attempted in this book, leads to a better unders tanding of rock metamorphism. The concept of metamorphic facies and subfacies considers asso ciations of mineral assemblages from diverse bulk compositions as characteristic of a certain pressure-temperature range. As new petrographic observations accumulated, it became increasingly difficult to accommodate this information within a manageable framework of metamorphic facies and subfacies. Instead, it turned out that mineral assemblages due to reactions in common rocks of a particular composi tion provide suitable indicators of metamorphic conditions. Metamorphic zones, defined on the basis of mineral reactions, very effectively display the evolution of metamorphic rocks. Thus the im portance ofreactions in metamorphic rocks is emphasized. Experimen tal calibration of mineral reactions makes it possible to distinguish reac tions which are of petrogenetic significance from those which are not. This distinction provides guidance in petrographic investigations un dertaken with the object of deducing the physical conditions of metamorphism.

Igneous And Metamorphic Petrology

Autor: Myron G. Best
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1118685385
File Size: 25,13 MB
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Igneous and metamorphic petrology has over the last twenty years expanded rapidly into a broad, multifaceted and increasingly quantitative science. Advances in geochemistry, geochronology, and geophysics, as well as the appearance of new analytical tools, have all contributed to new ways of thinking about the origin and evolution of magmas, and the processes driving metamorphism. This book is designed to give students a balanced and comprehensive coverage of these new advances, as well as a firm grounding in the classical aspects of igneous and metamorphic petrology. The emphasis throughout is on the processes controlling petrogenesis, but care is taken to present the important descriptive information so crucial to interpretation. One of the most up-to-date synthesis of igneous and metamorphic petrology available. Emphasis throughout on latest experimental and field data. Igneous and metamorphic sections can be used independently if necessary.

Igneous Petrogenesis A Global Tectonic Approach

Autor: B.M. Wilson
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780412533105
File Size: 16,76 MB
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As a major text in igneous petrology, this innovative book offers a much-needed, radically different approach to the study of igneous rocks. Bridging a long-recognized gap in the literature by providing petrogenic models for magmatismin terms of global tectonic processes, it encompasses geophysics and geochemistry in a comprehensive treatment of the subject. Most textbooks in igneous petrology have intended to avoid discussion of potentially controversial petrogenetic models. However, this is precisely the sort of information senior students of igneous petrology require. Dr Wilson has drawn on 15 years of research and 10 years of teaching experience in writing an account of what is now a well established understanding of the processes involved in environments of magma generation. She provides full discussions of the major-element, trace-element, and radiogenic isotope characteristics of magmas generated in different tectonic settings and she deals with the information derived from such data concerning magma source regions and their ascent trough the Earth's lithosphere. Additionally each chapter contains a summary of geophysical data relating to crustal and mantle structure and the location of magma reservoirs. The modular format of the book will facilitate its use by all students, researchers and professionals with an interest in igneous petrology. A basic knowledge of geochemistry, mineralogy, phase diagrams, regional geology and global tectonics is assumed, but such advanced topics as trace element and isotope geochemistry can be omitted initially if the reader's background is inappropriate. The text is profusely illustrated and the bibliography contains over 1000 carefully selected references. Marge Wilson graduated in geology at the University of Oxford. She then spent a year at the University of California, Berkeley, and subsequently studied the petrogenesis of nepheline syenites from the Gardar province of Greenland, leading to a PhD from the University of Leeds. Her research has focused on island-arc, oceanic-island and intra-continental plate tectonic settings.

Introduction To Mineralogy And Petrology

Autor: S. K. Haldar
Publisher: Elsevier
ISBN: 0124167101
File Size: 25,62 MB
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Introduction to Mineralogy and Petrology presents the essentials of both disciplines through an approach accessible to industry professionals, academic researchers, and students. Mineralogy and petrology stand as the backbone of the geosciences. Detailed knowledge of minerals and rocks and the process of formation and association are essential for practicing professionals and advanced students. This book is designed as an accessible, step-by-step guide to exploring, retaining, and implementing the core concepts of mineral and hydrocarbon exploration, mining, and extraction. Each topic is fully supported by working examples, diagrams and full-color images. The inclusion of petroleum, gas, metallic deposits and economic aspects enhance the book’s value as a practical reference for mineralogy and petrology. Authored by two of the world’s premier experts, this book is a must for any young professional, researcher, or student looking for a thorough and inclusive guide to mineralogy and petrology in a single source. Authored by two of the world’s experts in mineralogy and petrology, who have more than 70 years of experience in research and instruction combined Addresses the full scope of the core concepts of mineralogy and petrology, including crystal structure, formation and grouping of minerals and soils, definition, origin, structure and classification of igneous, sedimentary and metamorphic rocks Features more than 150 figures, illustrations, and color photographs to vividly explore the fundamental principles of mineralogy and petrology Offers a holistic approach to both subjects, beginning with the formation of geologic structures followed by the hosting of mineral deposits and concluding with the exploration and extraction of lucrative, usable products to improve the health of global economies

Petrogenesis Of Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: Jason Silver
Publisher:
ISBN: 9781681175935
File Size: 29,41 MB
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"Rock metamorphism is a geological process that changes the mineralogical and chemical composition, as well as the structure of rocks. Metamorphism is typically associated with elevated temperature and pressure, thus it affects rocks within the earths crust and mantle. Metamorphic rocks are made by either heating up or squashing the earth's crust. They are often found in mountainous regions. A metamorphic rock is a result of a transformation of a pre-existing rock. The most typical metamorphism transforms sedimentary rocks to metamorphic rocks by addition of heat during mountain building or by a large volume of magma in the crust. The original rock is subjected to very high heat and pressure, which cause obvious physical and/or chemical changes. One example is slate. Slate was originally a black mud laid down on the bottom of the sea or lake. Fossils Andreas can sometimes be found in it but they are often squashed. Due to the action of plate tectonics, compression, stress and shearing forces over long periods of time, rocks can be essentially warped and deformed, causing them to be compacted into a smaller volume of space. As a consequence, metamorphic rocks are always more dense than their original material, and also much less susceptible to erosional breakdown. As the Earth's plates move over geologic time, a plate containing igneous or sedimentary rock may become subducted under another plate. The sheer weight of the material above it can cause the rock to undergo metamorphism. Petrogenesis of Metamorphic Rocks discusses the most common metamorphic rock types, structure and graphical representation of their mineral assemblages. It defines basic principles of metamorphism and metamorphic processes."

Microtextures Of Igneous And Metamorphic Rocks

Autor: J.P. Bard
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9400946406
File Size: 24,26 MB
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At a time when 'textural' evidence is regarded as being 'obvious' ( . . . ) it becomes more and more difficult to find illustrations or even descriptions of the arrangements of the various constituents of 'traumatized' rocks. It is helpful in consequence to advise geology students that the study of thin sections is not only concerned with the identification of their mineral content. To do so would mean they could not see the wood for the trees. Accurate identification of the indi vidual minerals that form rocks is fundamental in their description but the analysis of their textures and habits is also essential. Study of textural features enforces constraints upon the inter pretation of the origin and history of a rock. The analysis of micro textures cannot and should never be an aim in itself, out must be sup ported by qualitative and quantitative correlations with theories of petrogenesis. The aim here is to help the reader to bridge the gap between his observations of rocks unqer the microscope and petrogenetic theories. The habits or architectures of crystals in rocks may resemble those studied by metallurgists and glass scientists. Analysis of micro textures is undergoing change engendered by comparisonS between manu factured and hence minerals. This can be seen from the increased number of publications dealing with crystal ~rowth or deformation processes at microscopic scales to which the name of 'nanotectonics' has been applied.

Igneous Rocks And Processes

Autor: Robin Gill
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 1444362437
File Size: 16,11 MB
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This book is for geoscience students taking introductory or intermediate-level courses in igneous petrology, to help develop key skills (and confidence) in identifying igneous minerals, interpreting and allocating appropriate names to unknown rocks presented to them. The book thus serves, uniquely, both as a conventional course text and as a practical laboratory manual. Following an introduction reviewing igneous nomenclature, each chapter addresses a specific compositional category of magmatic rocks, covering definition, mineralogy, eruption/ emplacement processes, textures and crystallization processes, geotectonic distribution, geochemistry, and aspects of magma genesis. One chapter is devoted to phase equilibrium experiments and magma evolution; another introduces pyroclastic volcanology. Each chapter concludes with exercises, with the answers being provided at the end of the book. Appendices provide a summary of techniques and optical data for microscope mineral identification, an introduction to petrographic calculations, a glossary of petrological terms, and a list of symbols and units. The book is richly illustrated with line drawings, monochrome pictures and colour plates. Additional resources for this book can be found at: http://www.wiley.com/go/gill/igneous.

Essentials Of Igneous And Metamorphic Petrology

Autor: B. Ronald Frost
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1107027543
File Size: 16,51 MB
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Concise introductory textbook on the petrology of igneous and metamorphic rocks for one-semester courses. Topics are organized around the types of rocks to expect in tectonic environments, rather than around rock classifications. Application boxes engage students by showing how petrology connects to wider aspects of geology. Includes end-of-chapter exercises.

Geothermal Energy

Autor: Ingrid Stober
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 3642133525
File Size: 16,84 MB
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The internal heat of the planet Earth represents an inexhaustible reservoir of thermal energy. This form of energy, known as geothermal energy has been utilized throughout human history in the form of hot water from hot springs. Modern utilization of geothermal energy includes direct use of the heat and its conversion to other forms of energy, mainly electricity. Geothermal energy is a form of renewable energy and its use is associated with very little or no CO2-emissions and its importance as an energy source has greatly increased as the effects of climate change become more prominent. Because of its inexhaustibility it is obvious that utilization of geothermal energy will become a cornerstone of future energy supplies. The exploration of geothermal resources has become an important topic of study as geology and earth science students prepare to meet the demands of a rapidly growing industry, which involves an increasing number professionals and public institutions participating in geothermal energy related projects. This book meets the demands of both groups of readers, students and professionals. Geothermal Energy and its utilization is systematically presented and contains the necessary technical information needed for developing and understanding geothermal energy projects. It presents basic knowledge on the Earth’s thermal regime and its geothermal energy resources, the types of geothermal energy used as well as its future potential and the perspectives of the industry. Specific chapters of the book deal with borehole heat exchangers and with the direct use of groundwater and thermal water in hydrogeothermal systems. A central topic are Enhanced Geothermal Systems (hot-dry-rock systems), a key technology for energy supply in the near future. Pre-drilling site investigations, drilling technology, well logging and hydraulic test programs are important subjects related to the exploration phase of developing Geothermal Energy sites. The chemical composition of the natural waters used as a heat transport medium in geothermal systems can be used as an exploration tool, but chemistry is also important during operation of a geothermal power plant because of potential scale formation and corrosion of pipes and installations, which needs to be prevented. Graduate students and professionals will find in depth information on Geothermal Energy, its exploration and utilization.

Pyrometamorphism

Autor: Rodney Grapes
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9783642155888
File Size: 13,45 MB
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1000 °C) and low pressures (

Petrology

Autor: Loren A. Raymond
Publisher:
ISBN: 9780071150415
File Size: 26,29 MB
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Designed for the middle-level undergraduate geology major, this text incorporates both fundamentals and information on advances in our understanding of igneous, sedimentary, and metamorphic rocks. It provides an overview of the field of petrology and a foundation for advanced studies.

Microscopic Properties And Processes In Minerals

Autor: Charles Richard Arthur Catlow
Publisher: Springer Science & Business Media
ISBN: 9780792359814
File Size: 22,82 MB
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A detailed account of the application of modern physical and chemical techniques to the elucidation of the structures and properties of minerals at the atomic level. Strong emphasis is given to the application of computer modelling methods, spectroscopic techniques and both X-ray and neutron scattering methods. Detailed surveys are presented of the contemporary understanding of the equations of state for Mantle minerals; and special attention is paid to the properties of dissolved water in silicate minerals.

Petrography To Petrogenesis

Autor: Malcolm J. Hibbard
Publisher: Macmillan College
ISBN:
File Size: 12,22 MB
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This process-oriented book combines optical mineralogy with petrography and petrology. It covers all rock types. It focuses on the study of the behavior of rocks in response to geological processes. In addition to covering common igneous, metamorphic, and sedimentary rocks, it also examines weathered, hydrothermally altered, and low-temperature precipitative and deformed rocks. It covers all rock types that relate to the fields of hydrogeology, environmental geology, economic geology, neotectonics, earth science, seismology, and geologic engineering. Incorporates numerous high-quality photographs, including 8 pages of color photos.