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Theories Of Lexical Semantics

Autor: Dirk Geeraerts
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 019870030X
File Size: 14,78 MB
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This book offers a comprehensive overview of the major traditions of word meaning research in linguistics. It charts the evolution of lexical semantics from the mid nineteenth century to the present day, presenting the main ideas, landmark publications, and the dominant figures ofthe the five semantic traditions.

Semantics Theories

Autor: Claudia Maienborn
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co KG
ISBN: 3110587149
File Size: 11,43 MB
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Now in paperback for the first time since its original publication, the material gathered here is perfect for anyone who needs a detailed and accessible introduction to the important semantic theories. Designed for a wide audience, it will be of great value to linguists, cognitive scientists, philosophers, and computer scientists working on natural language. The book covers theories of lexical semantics, cognitively oriented approaches to semantics, compositional theories of sentence semantics, and discourse semantics. This clear, elegant explanation of the key theories in semantics research is essential reading for anyone working in the area.

Theta Theory

Autor: Martin Haiden
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110197472
File Size: 10,55 MB
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Theta Theory explores the lexicon as an interface in the strict sense, as facilitating the flow of information between cognition and the computational system of language. It argues for the traditional concept of a listed lexicon, where semantic roles are encoded as features of verbs, and against event decomposition. Part one of the book discusses the link between cognition and the lexicon. Mainstream theories of lexical semantics are critically reviewed. Furthermore, this part provides an extensive description of the relevant data in German, including agentivity, causation, psychological predicates, and different types of diathesis alternations. Part two is devoted to the link between the lexicon and syntax. It develops a parallel model of grammatical derivation, which allows the formulation of robust generalizations over thematic role assignment, but at the same time acknowledges the relevance of other components, in particular morpho-phonology and narrow syntax. The theory is applied to a wide range of German constructions including modal infinitives, the present and gerundive participle, the past/passive/adjectival participle, verbal particles, auxiliary selection, and unaccusatives/reflexives. The book is of interest for students and scholars of lexical semantics, for descriptive German linguistics, and for linguists concerned with the development of the Minimalist Program.

The Oxford Handbook Of Lexicography

Autor: Philip Durkin
Publisher: Oxford University Press
ISBN: 0199691630
File Size: 26,14 MB
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This volume provides concise, authoritative accounts of the approaches and methodologies of modern lexicography and of the aims and qualities of its end products. Leading scholars and professional lexicographers, from all over the world and representing all the main traditions and perspectives, assess the state of the art in every aspect of research and practice. The book is divided into four parts, reflecting the main types of lexicography. Part I looks at synchronic dictionaries - those for the general public, monolingual dictionaries for second-language learners, and bilingual dictionaries. Part II and III are devoted to the distinctive methodologies and concerns of the historical dictionaries and specialist dictionaries respectively, while chapters in Part IV examine specific topics such as description and prescription; the representation of pronunciation; and the practicalities of dictionary production. The book ends with a chronology of the major events in the history of lexicography. It will be a valuable resource for students, scholars, and practitioners in the field.

Words And Other Wonders

Autor: Dirk Geeraerts
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110219123
File Size: 9,23 MB
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Cognitive Linguistics has given a major impetus to the study of semantics and the lexicon. The present volume brings together seventeen previously published papers that testify to the fruitfulness of Cognitive Linguistics for the study of lexical and semantic topics. Spanning the period from the late 1980s to recent years, the collection features a number of papers that may be considered classics within the field of cognitive linguistic lexicology. The papers are grouped in thematic sections. The first section deals with prototypicality as a theoretical and practical model of semantic description. The second section discusses polysemy and criteria for distinguishing between meanings. The third section tackles questions of meaning description beyond the level of words, on the level of idioms and constructions. The following section casts the net even wider, dealing with the cultural aspects of meaning. Moving away from the theoretical and descriptive perspective towards applied concerns, the fifth section looks at lexicography from the point of view of Cognitive Linguistics. The final section has a metatheoretical orientation: it discusses the history and methodology of lexical semantics. Each paper is preceded by a newly written introduction that situates the text against the period in which it was first published, but that also points to further developments, in the author's own research or in Cognitive Linguistics at large. The variety of topics dealt with make this book an excellent introduction to the broad field of lexicological and lexical semantic research.

The Geometry Of Meaning

Autor: Peter Gärdenfors
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 0262026783
File Size: 28,93 MB
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A novel cognitive theory of semantics that proposes that the meanings of words can be described in terms of geometric structures.

Semantics And Cognition

Autor: Ray Jackendoff
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262600132
File Size: 3,60 MB
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This book emphasizes the role of semantics as a bridge between the theory of language and the theories of other cognitive capacities such as visual perception and motor control. It develops the position that the study of semantics of natural language is the study of the structure of thought, and that grammatical structure offers a much more important source of evidence for the theory of cognition than is often supposed by linguists, philosophers, psychologists, or computer scientists.Ray Jackendoff is Professor of Linguistics and Chairman of the Linguistics and Cognitive Science Program at Brandeis University. His most recent book, coauthored with Fred Lerdahl, is A Generative Theory of Tonal Music (MIT Press paperback). Semantics and Cognition is included in the series, Current Studies in Linguistics.

Lexical Semantic Relations

Autor: Petra Storjohann
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 902728816X
File Size: 27,89 MB
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This collection of articles sketches the complexity of the subject of lexical-semantic relations and addresses semantic, lexicographic and computational issues on an array of meaning relations in different languages. It brings together a variety of linguistic studies on the contextualised construction of synonymy and antonymy in discourse. It shows that research on language and cognition calls for empirical evidence from different sources. This volume demonstrates how the internet, corpus data, as well as psycholinguistic methods contribute profitably to gain insights into the nature of the paradigmatics in actual language use. Furthermore, the volume is concerned with practical and application-oriented research on lexical databases, and it includes explorations of sense-related items in dictionaries from both a text-technological and lexicographic perspective.

Lexical Semantics

Autor: D. A. Cruse
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521276436
File Size: 27,70 MB
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Lexical Semantics is about the meaning of words. Although obviously a central concern of linguistics, the semantic behaviour of words has been unduly neglected in the current literature, which has tended to emphasize sentential semantics and its relation to formal systems of logic. In this textbook D. A. Cruse establishes in a principled and disciplined way the descriptive and generalizable facts about lexical relations that any formal theory of semantics will have to encompass. Among the topics covered in depth are idiomaticity, lexical ambiguity, synonymy, hierarchical relations such as hyponymy and meronymy, and various types of oppositeness. Syntagmatic relations are also treated in some detail. The discussions are richly illustrated by examples drawn almost entirely from English. Although a familiarity with traditional grammar is assumed, readers with no technical linguistic background will find the exposition always accessible. All readers with an interest in semantics will find in this original text not only essential background but a stimulating new perspective on the field.

How Words Mean

Autor: Vyvyan Evans
Publisher: Oxford University Press on Demand
ISBN: 0199234663
File Size: 29,40 MB
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In this book, Vyvyan Evans builds a framework for the understanding and analysis of meaning that is at once descriptively adequate and psychologically plausible. In so doing he also addresses current issues in lexical semantics and semantic compositionality, polysemy, figurative language, and the semantics of time and space.

Structuring Events

Autor: Susan Rothstein
Publisher: John Wiley & Sons
ISBN: 0470759100
File Size: 11,83 MB
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Structuring Events presents a novel semantic theory of lexical aspect for anyone interested in the study of verb meanings. Provides an introduction to aspectual classes and aspectual distinctions. Utilizes case studies to present a novel semantic theory of lexical aspect and compare it with alternative theories. Useful for students and scholars in semantics and syntax as well as the neighboring fields of pragmatics and philosophy of language.

The Oxford Handbook Of Cognitive Linguistics

Autor: Dirk Geeraerts
Publisher: OUP USA
ISBN: 0199738637
File Size: 9,74 MB
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The Oxford Handbook of Cognitive Linguistics presents a comprehensive overview of the main theoretical concepts and descriptive/theoretical models of cognitive linguistics, and covers its various subfields - theoretical as well as applied. The first twenty chapters give readers the opportunity to acquire a thorough knowledge of the fundamental analytic concepts and descriptive models of Cognitive Linguistics and their background. The book starts with a set of chapters discussing different conceptual phenomena that are recognized as key concepts in Cognitive Linguistics: prototypicality, metaphor, metonymy, embodiment, perspectivization, mental spaces, etc. A second set of chapters deals with Cognitive Grammar, Construction Grammar, and Word Grammar, which, each in their own way, bring together the basic concepts into a particular theory of grammar and a specific model for the description of grammatical phenomena. Special attention is given to the interrelation between Cognitive and Construction Grammar. A third set of chapters compares Cognitive Linguistics with other forms of linguistic research (functional linguistics, autonomous linguistics, and the history of linguistics), thus giving a readers a better grip on the position of Cognitive Linguistics within the landscape of linguistics at large. The remaining chapters apply these basic notions to various more specific linguistic domains, illustrating how Cognitive Linguistics deals with the traditional linguistic subdomains (phonology, morphology, lexicon, syntax, text and discourse), and demonstrating how it handles linguistic variation and change. Finally they consider its importance in the domain of Applied Linguistics, and look at interdisciplinary links with research fields such as philosophy and psychology. With a well-known cast of contributors from around the world, this reference work will be of interest to researchers and advanced students in (cognitive) linguistics, psychology, cognitive science, and anthropology.

Cognitive Approaches To Lexical Semantics

Autor: Hubert Cuyckens
Publisher: Walter de Gruyter
ISBN: 3110219077
File Size: 8,33 MB
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This collected volume presents radically new directions which are emerging in cognitive lexical semantics research. A number of papers re-ignite the polysemy vs. monosemy debate, and testify to the fact that polysemy is no longer simply taken for granted, but is currently a much more contested issue than it was in the 1980s and 1990s. Other papers offer fresh perspectives on the prototype structure of lexical categories, while generally accepted notions about the radial network structure of categories are questioned in papers on the development of word meaning in child language acquisition and in diachrony. Additional topics include the interaction of lexical and constructional meaning, and the relationship between word meanings and the contexts in which the words are encountered. This book is of interest to semanticists and cognitive linguists, as well as to scholars working in the broader field of cognitive science.

Semantic Theory

Autor: Ruth M. Kempson
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9780521292092
File Size: 22,75 MB
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An introduction to the central topics of linguistic semantics and the philosophy of language, assuming no special knowledge of philosophy or logic.

Selected Lexical And Grammatical Issues In The Meaning Text Theory

Autor: Leo Wanner
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027292779
File Size: 6,83 MB
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The Meaning Text Theory (MTT) is a lexicon-centred and dependency-based theory for the description of language using a holistic model that incorporates semantics, syntax, morphology and lexis. This volume, prepared on the occasion of Igor Mel'čuk’s 70th birthday, offers a cross-section of the current advances in MTT and its applications. The first part of the book focuses on lexical phenomena that are still largely neglected in mainstream linguistics: sound symbolism as manifested by ideophones, and idiosyncratic lexical relations as manifested by lexical functions (LFs). In particular, LFs are addressed from different angles (including the introduction of new “standard” LFs, the argument structure and semantic decomposition of lexical relations captured by LFs, automatic recognition of LF-instances in corpora, and the use of LFs in terminology and natural language processing). The second part of the book deals with such prominent model-oriented issues as semantic paraphrasing in MTT, the role of phrase structure in MTT and syntactic analysis within MTT.

Lexical Meaning In Context

Autor: Nicholas Asher
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 1139501313
File Size: 12,91 MB
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This is a book about the meanings of words and how they can combine to form larger meaningful units, as well as how they can fail to combine when the amalgamation of a predicate and argument would produce what the philosopher Gilbert Ryle called a 'category mistake'. It argues for a theory in which words get assigned both an intension and a type. The book develops a rich system of types and investigates its philosophical and formal implications, for example the abandonment of the classic Church analysis of types that has been used by linguists since Montague. The author integrates fascinating and puzzling observations about lexical meaning into a compositional semantic framework. Adjustments in types are a feature of the compositional process and account for various phenomena including coercion and copredication. This book will be of interest to semanticists, philosophers, logicians and computer scientists alike.

Making Sense Out Of Meaning

Autor: Walter Hirtle
Publisher: McGill-Queen's Press - MQUP
ISBN: 077358918X
File Size: 28,53 MB
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In his exploration of word meaning, Walter Hirtle examines an important and controversial topic in lexical semantics: polysemy, the capacity of words to manifest a range of different meanings when employed in different contexts. Building on the work of French linguist Gustave Guillaume, Making Sense out of Meaning is a speaker-oriented study that describes how speakers form word meaning and not, as in other theories, how listeners interpret the meaning of what they hear. Hirtle develops a general model of the ways in which words and word meaning may be realized in discourse contexts and addresses such issues as the demarcation of polysemy and monosemy, metaphorical meaning, parts of speech, and the concept of conversion or zero derivation. Bringing together both lexical and grammatical components, Hirtle shows that distinct lexical senses can be observed and their relations can be understood by focusing on speakers' use of verbs and nouns. A methodical and thoughtful work, Making Sense out of Meaning situates its central question by recalling traditional views of language’s relation to thought and argues for meaning as a valid object of scientific inquiry.

Ontological Semantics

Autor: Sergei Nirenburg
Publisher: MIT Press
ISBN: 9780262140867
File Size: 11,61 MB
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'Ontological Semantics' introduces a comprehensive approach to the treatment of text meaning by computer, arguing that being able to use meaning is crucial to the success of natural language processing applications.

Morphology And Lexical Semantics

Autor: Rochelle Lieber
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
ISBN: 9781139454049
File Size: 18,59 MB
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Morphology and Lexical Semantics explores the meanings of morphemes and how they combine to form the meanings of complex words, including derived words (writer, unionise), compounds (dog bed, truck driver) and words formed by conversion. Rochelle Lieber discusses the lexical semantics of word formation in a systematic way, allowing the reader to explore the nature of affixal polysemy, the reasons why there are multiple affixes with the same function and the issues of mismatch between form and meaning in word formation. Using a series of case studies from English, this book develops and justifies the theoretical apparatus necessary for raising and answering many questions about the semantics of word formation. Distinguishing between a lexical semantic skeleton that is featural and hierarchically organised and a lexical semantic body that is holistic, it shows how the semantics of word formation has a paradigmatic character.

From Polysemy To Semantic Change

Autor: Martine Vanhove
Publisher: John Benjamins Publishing
ISBN: 9027205736
File Size: 24,11 MB
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This book is the result of a joint project on lexical and semantic typology which gathered together field linguists, semanticists, cognitivists, typologists, and an NLP specialist. These cross-linguistic studies concern semantic shifts at large, both synchronic and diachronic: the outcome of polysemy, heterosemy, or semantic change at the lexical level. The first part presents a comprehensive state of the art of a domain typologists have long been reluctant to deal with. Part two focuses on theoretical and methodological approaches: cognition, construction grammar, graph theory, semantic maps, and data bases. These studies deal with universals and variation across languages, illustrated with numerous examples from different semantic domains and different languages. Part three is dedicated to detailed empirical studies of a large sample of languages in a limited set of semantic fields. It reveals possible universals of semantic association, as well as areal and cultural tendencies.